Global gender-based violence facts & stats

Gender-based violence (GBV) or violence against women and girls (VAWG), is a global pandemic that affects 1 in 3 women in their lifetime.

The numbers are staggering:

35% of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence.

Globally, 7% of women have been sexually assaulted by someone other than a partner.

Globally, as many as 38% of murders of women are committed by an intimate partner.

200 million women have experienced female genital mutilation/cutting.

This issue is not only devastating for survivors of violence and their families, but also entails significant social and economic costs. In some countries, violence against women is estimated to cost countries up to 3.7% of their GDP – more than double what most governments spend on education.

Failure to address this issue also entails a significant cost for the future.  Numerous studies have shown that children growing up with violence are more likely to become survivors themselves or perpetrators of violence in the future.

One characteristic of gender-based violence is that it knows no social or economic boundaries and affects women and girls of all socio-economic backgrounds: this issue needs to be addressed in (all) low and high-income countries.

Decreasing violence against women and girls requires a community-based, multi-pronged approach, and sustained engagement with multiple stakeholders. The most effective initiatives address underlying risk factors for violence, including social norms regarding gender roles and the acceptability of violence.

Source: https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/socialdevelopment/brief/violence-against-women-and-girls

The WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women found the prevalence of physical intimate partner violence in pregnancy to range from 1% in Japan to 28% Perú with the majority of sites in the 4% and 12% range. Clinical studies around the world found the highest prevalence in Egypt with 32%, followed by India (28%), Saudi Arabia (21%) and México (11%). Source: Intimate partner violence during pregnancy, WHO, 2011

Worldwide, almost one third (30%) of women who have been in a relationship report that they have experienced some form of physical and/or sexual violence by their intimate partner. Source: Violence against women, WHO, 2017

Women who have suffered from intimate partner violence are more likely to give birth to a low-birthweight baby, have an abortion, and experience depression. Source: Violence against women, Chapter 6, UN, 2013

Of the women killed in 2012, almost half were killed by an intimate partner or family member. Source: UN Women, Facts and Figures: Ending Violence against Women. 2013.

In Australia, Canada, Israel, South Africa, and the United States, between 40% and 70% percent of female murder victims were killed by their intimate partners. Source: UN Women. Fast Facts: Statistics on Violence against Women and Girls. 2014

In all countries with available data, current and/or former intimate partners are the most commonly reported perpetrators of physical violence among ever-married girls. Source: UN Women, Facts and Figures: Ending Violence against Women. 2013.

The 2014 UNICEF study estimated that around 120 million girls under the age of 20 (about 1 in 10) have been subjected to forced sexual intercourse or other forced sexual acts at some point of their lives. Boys also report experiences of sexual violence, but they do so to a lesser extent than girls; in high income countries girls typically report lifetime rates that are three times higher than those for boys. Source: Sexual violence against children, Unicef, 2014

An estimated 150 million girls under the age of 18 suffered some form of sexual violence in 2002 alone. Source: UN Women, United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women, Fast facts: statistics on violence against women and girls

In some cases, violence against women can lead to death; about two thirds of the victims of intimate partner/family-related homicide are women, in contrast to all cases of homicide, of which 20% of the victims are women. Source: Violence against women, Chapter 6, UN, 2013

Violence against women also incurs significant economic costs, both direct and indirect. Direct costs include those associated with the police, hospital and other health services, legal costs, and costs associated with housing, social and support services. Indirect costs include those related to reduced employment and productivity and the diminished value of a life lived with violence. Source: Violence against women, Chapter 6, UN, 2013

Worldwide, 35 percent of women have experienced either physical or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence as of 2013. Source: Violence against women, Chapter 6, UN, 2013

Of the 20.9 million victims of forced labor worldwide, 55 percent are women and girls and 98 percent of these women are sexually exploited. Source: UN Women, Facts and Figures: Ending Violence against Women. 2013.

Women in urban areas are twice as likely as men to experience violence, especially in developing countries. Source: UN Women, Facts and Figures: Ending Violence against Women. 2013.

Women who experience violence are: twice as likely to experience depression; almost twice as likely to have alcohol use disorders; 16 percent more likely to have low birth-weight babies; 1.5 times more likely to acquire HIV and 1.5 times more likely to contact syphilis infection, chlamydia or gonorrhea. Source: World Health Organization. Global and regional estimates of violence against women: prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. 2013.

Worldwide, up to 50% of sexual assaults are committed against girls under 16 years of age. Source: UN Women, United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women, Fast facts: statistics on violence against women and girls

The WHO identifies the following as causes and risk factors of gender-based violence; traditional gender norms that support male superiority and entitlement against perpetrators, harmful use of alcohol, weak legal sanctions, drug, poverty, and high levels of crime and conflict in society. Source: World Report on Violence and Health, 2015

In a study including 183 male perpetrators of sexual assault, more than half of respondents felt quite a bit or very justified because the woman had gotten them sexually aroused. Forty percent or more agreed at least somewhat that the woman was responsible, that she led him on, or that they believed she would enjoy it once the sexual intercourse started. Perpetrators were least likely to justify their actions by agreeing that she got what she deserved or that she owed them. Source: Wegner, R., Abbey, A., Jennifer, P., Pregram, S, E., Woerner, J. ‘Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration’ Violence against Women, 2015, volume 21 no.8

As in most countries, awareness of emergency contraception (EC) as a pregnancy prevention method is low in comparison to other contraceptive methods. While existing sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) programs in the assessed sites offer EC to survivors of sexual assault, family planning providers, especially in Uganda, reportedly disapprove of making EC available for non-sexual assault cases, citing that it could promote promiscuity, particularly among adolescents. EC is not available in the assessed health facilities providing family planning services in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia although they are available through prescription at pharmacies, nor in UNHCR’s implementing partner health facilities in Amman, Jordan. Source: Refocusing Family Planning in Refugee Settings: Findings and Recommendations from a Multi-Country Baseline Study, UNHCR (the UN Refugee Agency), Women’s refugee commission. 2011.

The prevalence of FGC/FGM has been estimated from large-scale, national surveys asking women aged 15–49 years if they have themselves or their daughters have been cut. Considerable variations have been found between the countries, with prevalence rates over 80% in eight countries. Moreover, the prevalence varies among regions within countries, with ethnicity being the most influential factor. Source: Female genital mutilation (FGM), WHO, 2016

It is estimated that more than 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone FGC/FGM in the countries where the practice is concentrated. Furthermore, there are an estimated 3 million girls at risk of undergoing FGC/FGM every year. The majority of girls are cut before they turn 5 years old. Source: Female genital mutilation (FGM), WHO, 2016

The evidence base on the physical health complications of FGC/FGM, which covers over half a century of research from more than 20 countries in Africa and beyond, shows that FGC/FGM is associated with an increased risk of urinary tract infections, bacterial vaginosis, painful sexual intercourse and obstetric difficulties. Source: Effects of female genital cutting on physical health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Rigmor C Berg et al. 2014

Over 133 million girls and women in 29 countries in the Middle East and Africa have experienced some form of FGM/C. Source: UN Women, Facts and Figures: Ending Violence against Women. 2013.

Girls who undergo FGM/C generally experience extreme physical and psychological pain, as well as prolonged bleeding, infection (including HIV), infertility, complications during pregnancy, and death. Source: UN Women, Facts and Figures: Ending Violence against Women. 2013.

Child brides are more vulnerable to STIs/HIV and early pregnancy as they are often unable to effectively negotiate safer sex. Source: UN Women, Facts and Figures: Ending Violence against Women. 2013.

Both adolescents and their babies are at risk of complications at birth since most girls are not as physically mature enough to give birth. Source: UN Women, Facts and Figures: Ending Violence against Women. 2013.

Impoverished girls are 2.5 times more likely to marry in childhood compared to those girls living in the wealthiest quintile. Source: UN Women, Facts and Figures: Ending Violence against Women. 2013.

Over 700 million women worldwide were married before the age of 18 years old and more than one third, around 250 million, were married before the age of 15. Source: UN Women, Facts and Figures: Ending Violence against Women. 2013.

In Canada, over 50% of lesbian, gay and bisexual learners and 75 per cent of transgender learners report verbal harassment; 10% report regularly hearing homophobic comments from teachers. Source: A girl’s right to learn without fear: Working to end gender-based violence at school, International Human Rights Program, University of Toronto Faculty of Law, 2013

In the United States, 83% of girls aged 12 to 16 experienced some form of sexual harassment in public schools. Source: UN Women. Fast Facts: Statistics on Violence against Women and Girls. 2014

The first sexual experience of some 30% of women was forced. The percentage is even higher among those who were under 15 at the time of their sexual initiation, with up to 45% reporting that the experience was forced. Source: UN Women. Fast Facts: Statistics on Violence against Women and Girls. 2014

Around 120 million girls, or approximate 1 in 10, have experienced force sexual acts at some point in their lives. Source: UN Women, Facts and Figures: Ending Violence against Women. 2013.

Cross sectional research from a decade long study within African countries, including Rwanda, Tanzania and South Africa, as well as recent findings from India, consistently found women who experienced intimate partner violence were more likely to be infected with HIV. Source: The Facts: Violence against Women and MDGs. 2010.

A recent review of clinical studies conducted in Africa reports during pregnancy 23% to 40% of women experience physician violence, 3% to 27% experience sexual violence, and 25% to 49% experience emotional intimate partner violence. Source: Intimate partner violence during pregnancy, WHO, 2011

In its first ten years of existence, Seruka has treated nearly 14,000 rape survivors in Burundi. Since 2008, UNFPA has supported Seruka in many ways, from supplying dignity and reproductive health kits to paying staff salaries. Source: Crisis in Burundi. Restoring Dignitity & Reproductive Health, UNFPA, 2015

In 2015 Central African Republic more than 60,000 cases of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) were registered during the same period by an inter-agency group headed by the UNFPA, of which about 30,000 involved victims of sexual violence, including rape. That is about 100 people a day. Source: Human Rights Day: Abuses rife in Central African Republic, UNHCR, 2015

Due to systematic and exceptionally violent gang rape, doctors in the Democratic Republic of Congo now classify vaginal destruction as a war crime. Thousands of Congolese girls and women suffer from vaginal fistula—tissue tears in the vagina, bladder and rectum—after surviving brutal rapes in which guns, branches and broken bottles were used to violate them. Source: Amnesty International, Stop all violence against women: it’s in our hands, March 2004.

From January to September 2014, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) recorded 11,769 cases of sexual and gender-based violence in the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu, Orientale, Katanga and Maniema; 39% of these cases were considered to be directly related to the dynamics of conflict, perpetrated by armed individuals. As in 2013, North Kivu and Orientale remain the provinces most affected by conflict-related sexual violence, with 42% of all incidents taking place in Orientale. Source: Sexual Violence in Conflict, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2015.

According to Human Rights Watch, as many as 3,000 women in Central Kivu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo were raped between 1999 and mid-2001, demonstrating the extent to which rape is used as a method of warfare in the Congo’s ongoing conflict. Source: Human Rights Watch, The War Within the War: Sexual violence against women and girls in Eastern Congo, New York, June 2002.

In Nairobi, Kenya 20 percent of women reported being sexually harassed at work or in school. Source: UN Women. Fast Facts: Statistics on Violence against Women and Girls. 2014

Refugees International estimates that up to 40 percent of women were raped during Liberia’s 14-year civil war. Source: Amnesty International, Central African Republic: Five months of war against women, London, November 2004.

According to official data from the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection, in 2014 there were 1,392 incidents of sexual and gender-based violence nationwide, with the majority taking place in Montserrado county, where the most services and reporting structures exist. Of these, 626 were cases of rape, with 605 of the victims under 18. Nine “one-stop centres” recorded 1,162 cases, of which 965 were rapes, 27 were gang rapes and 85 were sexual assaults. Source: Sexual Violence in Conflict, Liberia, UNICEF, 2015.

Results from a survey conducted in Liberia in May 2008 found that a third of the 1,666 respondents reported serving time with fighting forces and a third of those former combatants were also female. Compared with male combatants, female combatants were more likely to be forced to serve as sexual servants than male combatants. Source: International Rescue Committee (2004). Situation Analysis of Gender-Based Violence in Liberia, International Rescue Committee, NYC, New York.

In Sierra Leone, girls comprised 25 percent of soldiers. They were recruited as soldiers as well as forced sexual partners, known as ‘bush wives’. When they returned to their communities, many of their families rejected them. Source: UNFPA, State of the World Population 2005: The Promise of Equality, UNFPA, New York, 2005.

In a program for girls associated with armed groups in Sierra Leone, 32% reported having been raped and 66% were single mothers. Source: T. Holst-Roness, Violence against girls in Africa during armed conflict and crises, ICRC, Addis Ababa, 2006.

Approximately 50,000 to 64,000 internally displaced women in Sierra Leone have histories of war-related assault; 50% of those who came into contact with the Revolutionary United Front reported sexual violence. Source: Physicians for Human Rights, War-Related Sexual Violence in Sierra Leone: A Population-based Assessment, Boston, 2002.

In Sierra Leone, a majority of women who played an active role as combatants were poorly represented in disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs. Source: Physicians for Human Rights, War-Related Sexual Violence in Sierra Leone: A Population-based Assessment, Boston, 2002.

According to the International Consortium for Emergency Contraception (EC), 6.2 % of women have knowledge on EC, and 1.1% of women have ever used EC in Sierra Leone. Source: International Consortium for Emergency Contraception, Counting what counts : Tracking Access to Emergency Contraception, 2014

In South Africa, the 2011/2012 crime statistics report nearly 26,000 child victims, which account for 40% of all sexual offences. These figures are likely to be an underestimate, as only one in nine cases of sexual assault is reported to the police. Rape homicide, the most extreme form and consequence of sexual violence, is a relatively rare event in other countries, but was linked to 102 child murders in South Africa in 2009, and almost exclusively affects girls. Source: South Africa, Child Gauge, Chanaaz Mathews et al. 2014, UNICEF

Police crime statistics released in September 2015 state that in 2014/2015 there were a total of 53,617 sexual offenses reported to the South African Police Services (SAPS). This translates into 147 cases per day. Source: Rape Crisis, Cape Town trust, 2015

According to a study carried out between 1994 and 2003, 20% of urban refugee girls in South Africa faced sexual violence and exploitation. Source: Kirsten Johnson, Jana Asher, Stephanie Rosborough, Amisha Raja, Rajesh Panjabi, Charles Beadling, and Lynn Lawry, Association of Combatant Status and Sexual Violence With Health and Mental Health Outcomes in Postconflict Liberia, JAMA, August 13, 2008; 300: 676 – 690.

Between 2009 and 2011, an assessment of gender inequitable norms and gender-based violence within seven sites in South Sudan found 82 percent of females and 81 percent of males agreed that ‘a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together.’ While 68 percent of women and 63 percent of males agreed ‘there are times when a woman deserves to be beaten.’ Finally, women (47 percent) were more likely to agree that ‘it is okay for a man to hit his wife if she won’t have sex with him,’ than men (37 percent). Source: Scott, J., Averbach, S., Modest, A. M., Hacker, M. R., Cornish, S., Spencer, D., … & Parmar, P. (2013). An assessment of gender inequitable norms and gender-based violence in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach. Confl Health, 7(4)

In 2014, the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) documented 117 incidents involving 206 victims, as compared to 149 cases involving 273 victims in 2013. Victims ranged in age from 4 to 70 years; 204 of the victims were female and 2 were male (boys). In two incidents, six women were killed in connection with attempted rape and 30% of the recorded rape survivors sustained serious physical injuries. Serious allegations were levelled against the Sudanese armed forces regarding a mass rape of some 200 women and girls in Tabit, north-east of El Fasher, North Darfur, over a period of 36 hours beginning on 30 October 2014. Source: Sexual Violence in Conflict, Sudan (Darfur), 2015

The experience of physical violence varies by background characteristics in Uganda. The percentage of women who have experienced physical violence since age 15 does not vary much by age, employment status, or education. This percentage is highest among women who belong to the Pentecostal religion (61%), among the Itesa ethnic group (70%), among rural women (58 percent), women in the Eastern region (66%), and women with five or more children (60%). Source: Demographic and Health Survey, Uganda, 2011.

Close to six in ten women (58%) believe that wife beating is justified for at least one of the specified reasons and 44% of men believe that beating a female partner is justified in specific circumstances. Source: Demographic and Health Survey, Uganda, 2011.

Reproductive health assessments in northern Uganda and Jordan revealed that emergency contraception is not provided in a consistent manner for unwanted pregnancies, including victims of sexual violence. Source: 27 M.A. Koenig, et al., Domestic violence in rural Uganda: Evidence from a community based study, WHO Bulletin, Geneva, 2003. Vol. 81, p. 53-60.

According to the International Consortium for Emergency contraception, in Uganda 30.7% of women are aware of Emergency Contraception is 30.7% and 0.3% have ever used EC. Source: International Consortium for Emergency Contraception, Counting what counts : Tracking Access to Emergency Contraception, 2014

Ever-married women are more likely than those who never married to have experienced physical violence, implying that in Uganda violence perpetrated by spouses is more prevalent than violence perpetrated by other individuals. Sixty-five percent of women who are divorced, separated, or widowed and 56% of currently married women have experienced physical violence since age 15, as compared with 51% of never-married women. The percentage of women who have experienced physical violence since age 15 ranges from 47% of women in the highest wealth quintile to 63% of those in the lowest quintile. Source: Demographic and Health Survey, Uganda, 2011.

In Uganda, 28% of women age 15-49 have ever-experienced sexual violence and 16% have experienced sexual violence in the past 12 months. There are notable variations in the experience of sexual violence by age. Younger women (age 15-19) are less likely to report sexual violence ever and in the past 12 months than older women (19% and 9%, respectively). Muslim women, those of Basoga and Itesa ethnicity, and rural women are more likely than other women to have experienced sexual violence ever and in the past year. The percentage of women who have ever experienced sexual violence ranges from 17% of women in Karamoja to 35% of women in Central 2 region. Recent sexual violence among women ranges from 7% of women in Kampala to 22% of those in East Central region. Source: Demographic and Health Survey, Uganda, 2011.

In Uganda, 16% of women experienced physical violence during pregnancy. This percentage increases with age from 9% among women age 15-19 to 24% among those age 40-49. Physical violence during pregnancy is higher among Pentecostal women (24%) those of Itesa ethnic background (27%) women in rural areas (17%), and those residing in Eastern region (25%). Women who are divorced, separated, or widowed are more likely to report experiencing violence during pregnancy (25%) than women who are currently married (15%) or never married (3%). Source: Demographic and Health Survey, Uganda, 2011.

Within the first six months of 2014 in Afghanistan, registered cases of violence against women increased by 25% compared to the same time period in 2013. Although this can be attributed to an increase in violence it can also be attributed to an increase in awareness and availability of reporting mechanisms. Source: Amnesty International Report 2014/2015. The State of the World’s Human Rights.

The proportion of women exposed to physical violence is 13% in Azerbaijan. The percentage of women experiencing sexual violence at least once in their lifetime is 4%. Fifteen percent of women in Azerbaijan documented having experienced intimate partner violence in the last 12 months. Source: Violence against women, Chapter 6, UN, 2013

A survey in 2013 conducted by UN Women found 99 percent of women and girls reported having experienced some form of sexual harassment in Egypt. Source: Amnesty USA. ‘Circles of Hell’ Domestic, Public and State Violence against Women in Egypt. 2015.

Demographic and Health Survey results from 2008 showed 91% of women in Egypt were subjected to FGM/C. Source: Amnesty USA. ‘Circles of Hell’ Domestic, Public and State Violence against Women in Egypt. 2015.

500 cases of gang rape and sexual assaults between June 2012 and June 2014 in Egypt. Source: Amnesty USA. ‘Circles of Hell’ Domestic, Public and State Violence against Women in Egypt. 2015.

The UN reported cases of 40 murders of women and 163 cases of self-immolation in Iraqi Kursdistan in the first six months of 2013. While acknowledging that real figures are likely to be higher in Syria, the UN also reported there are between 300 and 400 cases of honour killings annually. Source: Gender-based violence amongst Syrian refugees in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, ‘We just keep silent’, UN Women, 2014

The results of a family survey conducted with a sample of 2,590 families living in a Palestine refugee camp in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan revealed that the average incidence of wife beating over a lifetime is 44.7%. The results also showed that the percentage of men who admitted beating their wives is higher than the percentage of women who admitted being beaten, at 48.9% compared with 42.5%. Another study revealed that 19% of pregnant women frequenting health centres were subject to physical violence during the year preceding the study, and that 11.4% of the pregnant women admitted to being subject to physical violence during pregnancy. Source: Working with Gender Based Violence Survivors, UNRWA, 2012.

A survey conducted in Jordan from March through December of 2013, found 83 percent of Syrian women surveyed were not aware of any services available for survivors of gender based violence. Source: UN Women. Gender-Based Violence and Child Protection among Syrian Refugees in Jordan, with a Focus on Early Marriage. 2013

According to the International Consortium for Emergency contraception, Jordan does not have a product registered for EC thus in Jordan they would benefit from the use of the Yuzpe method. Source: International Consortium for Emergency Contraception, Counting what counts : Tracking Access to Emergency Contraception, 2014

A recent United Nations Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific found that nearly half of the more than 8,000 men interviewed reported using physical and/or sexual violence against a female partner, with the proportion of men reporting such violence ranging from 26% to 80% across sites. In all six countries included in the study, the majority (between 65% and 85%) of men who reported using physical or sexual violence against a partner had committed such acts of violence more than once. Source: Violence against women, Chapter 6, UN, 2013

A 2010 study in New Delhi, India found 66% of women reported experiencing sexual harassment between two and five times during the past year. Source: UN Women, Facts and Figures: Ending Violence against Women. 2013.

There are no reliable estimates on the number of persons trafficked annually from Myanmar, although a total of 134 trafficking cases were investigated in 2008 involving 303 victims (153 female and 50 male), and 342 traffickers were prosecuted. Fifteen cases were of internal trafficking. Identified cases likely represent a small fraction of the scale of the problem. UNICEF, for example, proposed in 2003 that 10,000 girls are being trafficked every year from Myanmar into Thai brothels alone. Source: UNIAP Myanmar, United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking, 2009

Two Shan rights groups have documented mass rapes involving hundreds of women and girls systematically carried out by Burma’s army; employing rape as a method of war, the Burmese government has tried to violently suppress a local rebellion in the Shan state since the mid-1990s. Source: Shan Women’s Action Network & Shan Human Rights Foundation, License to Rape: The Burmese Military Regime, May 2002.

North Korean women fleeing their country are frequently trafficked into forced de facto marriages with Chinese men. Even if they have lived in China for years, these women are not entitled to legal residence and face possible arrest and repatriation. Many children of such unrecognized marriages lack legal identity or access to elementary education. Source: World Report 2015: North Korea, Human Rights Watch, 2015

In 2013, a UN Development program report found 80% of men in Papua New Guinea’s capital admitted to using physical or sexual violence against women. Source: UN Women, Facts and Figures: Ending Violence against Women. 2013.

A study based on 42,000 women interviewed in the 28 Member States of the European Union, found that only 14% of women reported their most serious incidents of intimate partner violence to the police and only 13% reported their most serious incident of non-partner violence to the police. Source: Amnesty International Report 2014/2015. The State of the World’s Human Rights.

In the European Union, between 40% and 50% of women experience unwanted sexual advances from physical contact to other forms of sexual assault in the work place. Source: UN Women, Facts and Figures: Ending Violence against Women. 2013.

A nationwide survey conducted by Amnesty International in 2014 found a quarter of women in Belgium have experienced sexual violence by a partner and 13% were raped by someone other than their partners. Source: Amnesty International Report 2014/2015. The State of the World’s Human Rights.

During the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the early 1990s, it is estimated that between 20,000 to 60,000 women were raped. Source: Women Under Siege, Conflict Profiles, Bosnia, 2012.

In Kosovo, thousands of Kosovar women were killed as victims of “ethnic cleansing”. An estimated 23,200 to 45,600 Kosovar Albanian women are believed to have been rape between August 1998 and August 1999, the height of the conflict with Serbia. However, obtaining a true picture of the scope of sexual violence committed during Kosovo’s extended period of apartheid and brief war has been as challenging as in other conflict-affected regions. Source: Prevalence of Gender-Based violence: Preliminary Findings from a Field Assessment in Six Shelters in Kosovo, Xhenet Syka, 2014.

UN Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights Kyung-wha Kang pointed out that in 2011, 647 women were killed in El Salvador and 375 in Guatemala, and femicide is considered to be the second leading cause of death of women of reproductive age in Honduras. She added that the rate of impunity of femicide crimes is estimated in a 77% in El Salvador and Honduras. Source: UN Women, Femicide in Latin America, 2013

In Chile, Costa Rica, Panamá and Perú, school-based surveys have found between 5% and 40% of adolescent girls report experiences of sexual abuse. Source: A girl’s right to learn without fear: Working to end gender-based violence at school, International Human Rights Program, University of Toronto Faculty of Law, 2013

Girls in the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Guatemala, México, Panamá and Nicaragua report being victims of sexual coercion from teachers, sometimes under the threat of their grades suffering if they do not accept sexual advances. Source: A girl’s right to learn without fear: Working to end gender-based violence at school, International Human Rights Program, University of Toronto Faculty of Law, 2013

DHS data show that ever-married girls and women aged 15 to 49 from Potosi, Bolivia have the highest prevalence of reported physical or sexual violence by a current or former partner (29%) compared to the national average (24%). Source: Violence against women, Chapter 6, UN, 2013

A Pan-American Health Organization study in 2014 found Bolivia had the highest rate of violence against women by an intimate partner and the second highest rate of sexual violence in the region. Source: Amnesty International Report 2014/2015. The State of the World’s Human Rights.

As of 2010, a woman is assaulted every 15 seconds in São Paulo, Brazil. Source: The Facts: Violence against Women and MDGs. 2010.

Colombia has high reported rates of rape and domestic violence generally, and national surveys have found even higher rates among the displaced. A 2011 government sponsored survey found that almost 48% of displaced women reported suffering domestic violence, and more than 9% reported being raped by someone other than their partner. Source: Colombia: Obstacles to Care for Abused, Displaced Women. Ensure Perpetrators Prosecuted, Health Services for Victims of Rape, Domestic Violence, 2012

According to the Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF) the total rate of cases of sexual violence increased 11% from 2010 to the highest rate in ten years; 49 cases for every 100,000 inhabitants amongst the internally displaced population in Colombia. Notably, a 2011 Profamilia and USAID study that looked specifically at the sexual and reproductive health of two marginalized communities─poor and displaced—found higher rates of intra-familial violence and sexual violence among displaced women than was reported in the national ENDS survey of the general population. The survey found that almost 48% of displaced women who were or had been married or partnered reported having suffered violence at the hands of their intimate partners. Source: Human Rights Watch: Rights out of reach, Obstacles to Health, Justice, and Protection for Displaced Victims of Gender-Based Violence in Colombia, 2012

Intermón Oxfam in collaboration with national women’s civil society organizations, including Casa de la Mujer, Sisma Mujer, Ruta Pacífica de las Mujeres, Fundsarep, and Vamos Mujer, conducted the first-ever prevalence study regarding sexual violence against women in the context of the conflict in the years 2001 to 2009, based on interviews with 2,693 women in Colombia. This study, released in 2011, found that in 407 municipalities in which armed groups were present, 17.6% of women—that is almost half a million women—were direct victims of sexual violence. Source: Colombia: Obstacles to Care for Abused, Displaced Women. Ensure Perpetrators Prosecuted, Health Services for Victims of Rape, Domestic Violence, 2012

In Colombia, over 9% of displaced women reported being raped by someone other than their partner. This contrasts with the 37% of women in the general population who were or had been married or partnered reported in the 2010 ENDS survey having suffered physical violence at the hands of their partners, and almost 10% reported that the form of violence was rape. Nearly 6% of the women of the general population said they had been raped by someone other than their husband or current partner. Source: Colombia: Obstacles to Care for Abused, Displaced Women. Ensure Perpetrators Prosecuted, Health Services for Victims of Rape, Domestic Violence, 2012

In a 2010 national survey of the general population in Colombia, 37% of women reported intimate partner violence, and 6% who reported rape by someone other than their partner. Source: Colombia: Obstacles to Care for Abused, Displaced Women. Ensure Perpetrators Prosecuted, Health Services for Victims of Rape, Domestic Violence, 2012

In Colombia, reports indicate that sexual violence has been used by non-state armed groups as a strategy to assert social control and to intimidate civilians, in particular women leaders and human rights defenders. Source: Sexual Violence in Conflict, UNICEF, Colombia, 2015

Many women in Colombia have been subject to forced abortions and births, especially within guerrilla groups. Moreover, many abortion procedures were inadequate and took place very late in the pregnancy, resulting in high risks of health complications. Source: Council on Hemispheric Affairs, The Silences of Sexual Violence: Commission Faces Truth Deficits in Colombia, 2015

In the conflict setting in Colombia, women were subject to forced recruitment and labor; early or forced marriage; ongoing threats and multiple displacements perpetrated by armed actors. Source: Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia, Andrea L. Wirtz, Kiemanh Pham, Nancy Glass, Saskia Loochkartt, Teemar Kidane, Decssy Cuspoca, Leonard S Rubenstein, Sonal Sign and Alexander Vu. 2014

In the Dominican Republic, the number of gender-based killings increased by 53% in the first six months of 2014. Source: Amnesty International Report 2014/2015. The State of the World’s Human Rights.

A 1995 survey of post-conflict Nicaragua reported 50% of female respondents had been beaten by their husbands, and that 30% had been forced by their husbands to have sex. Source: Clavel, V. Gutierrez, et al., Situation of Gender-based Violence Against Women in Latin America and the Caribbean: National Report Nicaragua, UNDP, New York, 2001.

Statistics from the Demographic and Health Survey in Nicaragua show that among women who were physically abused, 32% had husbands scoring high on a scale of “marital control,” compared with only 2% among women who were not physically abused. Source: Violence by intimate partners, Chapter 4, WHO, 2014

In the state of Chihuahua, México, 66% of murders of women were committed by husbands, boyfriends or other family members. Source: UN Women. Fast Facts: Statistics on Violence against Women and Girls. 2014

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